Spatial Heterogeneity Models of Undernourished Toddlers in Java Island, Indonesia

Naili Amaliah As’adi, Yuliani Setia Dewi, I Made Tirta

© 2023 Yuliani Setia Dewi, published by UIKTEN. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International. (CC BY-NC 4.0).

Citation Information: SAR Journal. Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 94-100, ISSN 2619-9955,, June 2023.

Received: 07 March 2023.
Revised:   03 May 2023.
Accepted: 08 May 2023.
Published: 26 June 2023.


The percentage of undernourished toddlers on Java Island averages 8.5 %. This number is relatively high compared to the average incidence of undernutrition in toddlers in Sumatra, 3.3%. This study uses OLS, GWR, and GWANN to explore undernutrition in toddlers data on Java Island. We use cross-validation to determine the optimum bandwidth in GWR and GWANN methods. GWANN uses a single hidden layer with several hidden neurons where the number of hidden neurons is selected based on RMSE. We use indicators RMSE, MAE, and MAPE to determine the best method for modeling data on undernourished toddlers in Java. By comparing the final results, the best method for modeling data on undernourished toddlers in Java is GWR. There is a relationship between regions on the influence factor of undernutrition. Most adjacent areas, ranging from East Java to DKI Jakarta, have the same influence factor: the percentage of skinny toddlers.

Keywords – Ordinary Least Squares, GWR, GWANN, spatial heterogeneity, undernourished.


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